Learning Disability

Learning disability (LD) is a neurological disorder and an umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems. Persons with learning disabilities see, hear, and understand things differently. They get problem with learning new information and skills, and using them properly. There are so many types of learning disabilities reported but the most common types of learning disabilities are problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking.

Prevalence
The prevalence of Learning Disability (LD) reported as maximum as 11%-15% of the total population in different countries.

Signs and Symptoms of LD

  • Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the week
  • Slow to learn new skills
  • Trouble learning basic math concepts
  • Trouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoes
  • Trouble finding the right word
  • Difficulty following directions or learning routines
  • Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds
  • Confuses basic words when reading
  • Consistently misspells words and makes frequent errors
  • Difficulty telling time and remembering sequences
  • Poor organizational skills (very messy and disorganized)
  • Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills
  • Dislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloud
  • Poor handwriting

Causes of LD
There is no single cause for LD has been established. A few causes have been observed which includes

  • Problems during pregnancy and birth
  • Genetic influences
  • Accidents after birth
  • Environmental impacts

Types of LD
There are so many types of LD have been observed. It includes   
-Dyslexia
A kind of LD which affects reading and related language-based processing skills

-Dyscalculia
A kind of LD which affects person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts

-Dysgraphia
A kind of LD which affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills

Language Processing Disorder
A kind of LD which affects attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories.

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
A kind of LD which adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted by the brain
  
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
A kind of LD which usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills

Visual Perceptual or Visual Motor Deficit
A kind of LD which affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy

Associated Disorders
Following disorders can be associated with LD

  • ADHD
  • Dyspraxia
  • Executive Functioning
  • Memory

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of LD is done by clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, School Neurologist and other learning disability specialists through testing, assessments and observations. IQ testing is one of the options to ascertain the presence of LD

Management and Treatment
Presently, there is no cure for specific learning disabilities; there are many ways to improve the condition. They can be helped in overcoming problems with reading, writing, and math skills.

Both strengthening the skills and developing a learning strategy can help a child. Special education with a systematic approach can help a child with LD tremendously. Multimode teaching is often effective with LD.

Children might benefit from individual education program, school program, home program, cognitive behavior therapy, psychotherapy.

Children with LD can have associated disorders, including depression, anxiety, aggression, or oppositional behavior, which can be managed by the child psychiatrist with both medicinal therapy and psychotherapy. A few children with LD may need ENT and ophthalmic opinion.

Prognosis
People with learning disabilities can be successful in community, school and work as well as in their personal lives if they get good therapeutic management.

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